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There are a number of ways you can lose weight, including diet, exercise, medication and surgery. Bariatric surgery is a broad term used to describe a number of procedures that help people lose weight. It works by reducing the amount of food you can eat or reducing the nutrients you can absorb.
Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding
This is a restrictive surgery in which the surgeon places an inflatable band over the top portion of the stomach. This slows down the passage of food that goes into the main stomach, consequently reducing the quantity of intake.
Gastric sleeve or sleeve gastrectomy (Most Common Procedure)
This is a laparoscopic surgery in which the surgeon removes about 75% to 85% of the stomach, reducing the quantity of food intake.
Gastric bypass or Roux-en-Y surgery
The surgeon first staples the stomach creating a small pouch. Then they cut the small intestine and attach the lower part of it directly to the pouch, bypassing a major part of the stomach and small intestines.
Biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch
First, a sleeve gastrectomy is performed in which 50% of the stomach is removed. Then the surgeon connects the pouch to the end of the small intestine bypassing most of it.
Bariatric surgery helps an obese person lose weight by reducing the capacity of
their digestion and appetite. A person with a body mass index of 30 or more is considered obese.
Other factors like muscle mass and waist circumference also factor into a diagnosis of obesity.
People consider bariatric surgery when the BMI is 40 or above. It might also be recommended for people with a BMI between 30 and 40 if they also have diseases such as diabetes, high blood pressure, fatty liver, or sleep apnea.
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Dr. Jaideep Raj Rao is the Senior Consultant Surgeon at JR surgery at Mount Elizabeth Novena Hospital, Singapore and specializes is Minimal Access & Robotic Surgery, Hernia and Complex Abdominal Wall Reconstruction.
Dr. Rao was awarded the National Healthcare Human and Manpower Development Plan fellowship by the Ministry of Health in 2007 in Advance Laparoscopic and Robotic Surgery.